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Henry VIII on Dr John Dunn.

Break with Spain and Rome

It was in the geopolitical interest of Venice to break the relationship between Tudor England and Spain, by encouraging the divorce of Henry VIII from Catherine of Aragon. It was Thomas Cromwell, successor to Sir Thomas More as Chancellor of England, who skilfully assembled the case for divorce. Before his appointment as chief minister to Henry VIII, Cromwell had worked for the Frescobaldi banking dynasty in Florence and Venice, before travelling to Antwerp as a trader in his own right. Possibly an agent of Venice, Cromwell would certainly not have been antipathetic to the expansion of Venetian trading practices at the expense of Thomas More’s vision of a Renaissance England. This made Thomas Cromwell an early advocate of the Counter-Renaissance.

To fortify the divorce case, Thomas Cromwell compiled reports from many sources. One of these was Marco Raphael, a Venetian Jew converted to Christianity. Though he held the high position of chief cipherist for the diplomatic service of Venice, Raphael travelled to England to assist the King. The former rabbi reported that ‘the Levitial law [that forbids marrying a sister-in-law] has always [been in effect] and never abolished nor weakened; on the other hand, the law of Deuteronomy was never in force except when the conditions therein expressed were present. And that it was never observed, even by the Jews themselves, after the destruction of Jerusalem, except in matters concerning inheritance.’ According to Jewish scholarship, the king could safely enter a second marriage.

Franciscan friar Francesco Giorgi Veneto was also invited to England in the early 1530’s by Cromwell. Giorgi, described as the ‘Cabbalist Friar of Venice’ by Frances Yates, brought with him armfuls of manuscripts, letters, and other documents supporting the King’s arguments for divorce from the Queen, Catherine of Aragon. Giorgi remained in England for more than five years, gaining the King’s ear and entry into the inner court circle.

Under the auspices of Cromwell, Jewish and Cabalistic scholarship trumped the Pope’s ruling on the matter of the King’s second marriage. Venetian interests were therefore served by an English break with Spain and Rome.

© John Dunn.
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Cosmic mediator Cosmic mediator
Steiner gave us permission to consider the occult as a means of answering the grail question - ‘what am !?’ He also permitted us to make a cosmic reversal - to upturn Spinoza and Marx - by establishing the working principle that matter originates in spirit.
John Dunn

Quote every hour: No good poetry is ever written in a manner twenty years old, for to write in such a manner shows conclusively that the writer thinks from books, convention and clich?, not from real life. Ezra Pound

Cosmic mediator 2 Cosmic mediator 2
Consciously of not, Steiner incorporated Lurianic and Spinozist concepts of return to the original Substance into his cosmography, most likely through the influence of Hegel, who was similarly infected. Steiner’s concept of freedom ultimately denied the individually creative I. Like Spinoza, freedom for Steiner meant the recognition of necessity, except that he presented that necessity as cosmic in scale.
John Dunn


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