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The Marrano Jews in Amsterdam had suffered a huge economic loss and massive decline in social status. Before their expulsion from Spain and Portugal they enjoyed a privileged status. Pictured: Paolo Sarpi on Dr John Dunn.

'Republick of Merchants'

As Banking interests transferred from Venice to Antwerp and then to Amsterdam, the Marranos saw a new base from which they could ply their trades freely. Portuguese conversos first sailed to Amsterdam in 1593, Spinoza’s antecedants amongst them, and promptly reconverted to Judaism.

Spinoza led the Counter-Renaissance response.

Paolo Sarpi early in the seventeenth century had analysed the Venetian constitution as the expression of mercantile interests. ‘The Spaniards,’ he wrote, ‘who have so little kindness for the Venetian Government have not a more odious name than to call it, A Republick of Merchants.’ John Dunn on tendencies. Sarpi, like Spinoza, warned that democratic tendencies were deleterious to a merchants' aristocratic republic.* 'But all Assemblies of numerous Bodies are to be avoided as the Plague, because nothing can sooner overturn the Commonwealth, than the Facility the People may meet with in getting together to confer or debate about their Grievances. . . .’ Sarpi's philosophy of government was a forerunner of Spinoza's realism; the Italian held ‘that all is just which is any ways necessary for the maintaining of the Government’, and he advised always feeding the people cheaply, ‘For the nature of the rabble is so malicious. . . .’ The worldly-wise and struggle-weary political scientists of the seventeenth century could not muster much enthusiasm for the common man. Sarpi, furthermore, felt that a common bond of economic interest and hostility to Spain joined the Venetian and Dutch Republics. ‘It is greatly for the interest of the Republick, to cultivate a strict Friendship with the seven united Provinces of the Netherlands. . . .’

He urged more trade with the Dutch, and felt that the wills of both commonwealths would easily be united because ‘they are eager Pursuers of Merchandise’.**

If Sarpi was the consummate statesman for ‘A Republick of Merchants’, then Spinoza was his counterpart in philosophy, as banking and mercantile interests moved from Venice to Amsterdam, later to dominate the world through the Anglo-Dutch empire.

Spinoza’s was a counter-Renaissance philosophical system that took its lead politically from Sarpi, as the latter’s ideas spread to Amsterdam along with Venetian banking.

Spinoza’s pursuit of esoteric kabbalism clothed in the exoteric form of rationalism combined well with Sarpian political objectives. This amalgam was inseparable from an oligarchical and increasingly financialised economy in which the realisation of human potential came a distant second to the realisation of profit. It reflected the amalgam of Marrano-Jewish business experience and Venetian banking that made Amsterdam the crucible from which the modern world of finance and commerce emerged.

In such an environment, creativity per se came a poor second to an understanding and manipulation of what existed already.

Spinoza attacked the humanist position in which he believed ‘the ignorant violate the order of nature rather than conform to it; they think of men in nature as a state within a state [imperium in imperio]’ (Tractatus Politicus 2/6). The phrase ‘imperium in imperio’ famously appears also in the preface to Ethics III, where Spinoza characterised the non-naturalist view that he opposes.

In both of these passages, Spinoza criticised the assumption that man can strive for an existence outside the laws that govern the rest of nature. It is precisely this position that Spinoza undercuts when he writes in the Ethics that ‘the laws and rules of Nature…are always and everywhere the same’ (Ethics III preface) and in the Tractatus Politicus that ‘whether man is led by reason or solely by desire, he does nothing that is not in accordance with the laws and rules of nature’ (Tractatus Politicus 2/5).

It was with these words that Spinoza reduced the status of mankind to that of an animal. In Spinoza, the counter-humanist, counter-Renaissance, project of the Enlightenment would attain its purest rationality. The subject was left with no role other than to submit to necessity. This was a fatalist and determinist philosophy.

Spinoza began his Ethics with definitions, starting with the ‘cause of itself’ or causa sui. Definition 3 says: ‘By substance, I understand that which is in itself and is conceived through itself; in other words, that, the conception of which does not need the conception of another thing from which it must be formed.’

This ‘substance’ is the sole order of nature. It is Spinoza’s great kabbalistic presupposition. It is Luria’s metaphor, Ein Sof.

The Shevirat HaKeilim - shattering of the vessels resulted in a broken, or fallen world, the irrational world, which to Spinoza was concomitant with the Renaissance humanism that exiled his people.

Central to this fallen world was the Promethean humanist view that in his capacity for creative spontaneity and play, frivolity even, man is the ‘living image of God’ (imago viva Dei) and has the capacity to be a ‘human god’ and a ‘second creator’ (capax Dei).

Rationality and play are polar opposites in terms of world views. Spinoza held the counter-Renaissance position. The challenge was to determine how to mend the injury suffered by the Godhead, how to reverse the fall, how to return from the Shevirat HaKeilim - shattering of the vessels?

It would be through REASON that Spinoza would lead his people home. Reason would equate to the Tikkun of the Lurianic kaballah. It would be through reason that a return to the divine perfection of Ein Sof, the undifferentiated ‘substance’, would be achieved. The Ein Sof metaphor would equate to the undifferentiated and, ultimately, globalised, ‘Republick of Merchants’.

Subjectivity would be once more enfolded into substance, never allowing for a clear differentiation between the two.

Complete tikkun would undo the material, differentiated and individuated world we know - a suicide of the self. The answer to “What am I?” is reduced to - “you are what you have to be”.

There would be a denial of subjectivity (creativity and deviation). All you could do is understand the system, not influence it. To maximise your potential, you must understand the motivations of others and work the system (Machiavellian perhaps, but very definitely Sarpian).

The Ein Sof to which Spinoza led his people was Sarpi’s Republick of Merchants, or modernity. This was probably his self-proclaimed ‘Messianic’ role, the one for which he was excommunicated.

Assuming the universal applicability of the principle of sufficient reason, a consistent rationalism must be deterministic and fatalistic. Spinoza’s self-caused God, or substance, is incompatible the freedom of the will. SARPI AND SPINOZA FEAR DEMOCRACY. JUST KEEP THE MASSES CHEAPLY FED (with ideas as well as food). DENY THEIR HUMANITY.

Spinoza by reading a secularization process onto a thinker who saw the unity or monism of all things. Spinoza’s toleration, which resulted from his monism, had limits that are troubling for any radical pacifist

The sovereign alone has the right to determine not only the state’s laws but also to determine religious law:

It is the duty of the sovereign alone to decide what is necessary for the welfare of the entire people and the security of the state, and to command what it judges to be thus necessary, it follows that it is also the duty of the sovereign alone to decide what form piety towards one’s neighbor should take, that is in what way every man is required to obey God. From this we clearly understand in what way the sovereign is the interpreter of religion.

Benedictus de Spinoza, Theological-Political Treatise, trans. Samuel Shirley, 2nd ed. (Indianapolis: Hackett, 2001), 215-16

**See Lewis Samuel Feuer, Spinoza and the Rise of Liberalism, note e59, p.291.

© John Dunn.

The fall of knowledge The fall of knowledge
We dig up the past in an obsession with facts rather than new knowledge. Facts from history, facts from nature, facts about lives. Biography, biography, all is biography. Association with the great is taken for being great and the mere collation of facts is mistaken for wisdom. The rise of the expert has marked the fall of knowledge.
John Dunn

Quote every hour: Real education must ultimately be limited to men who insist on knowing. The rest is mere sheep-herding. Ezra Pound

On the particularity On the particularity
That this was the universalised state of modern times and not co-extensive either Jews or women, was insightfully recognised by the individualist-anarchist Dora Marsden. Weininger's genius, she says, was to recognise the two great oppositions, personality and amorphousness; his ‘boyish misstatement’ to locate these respectively in men, and in Jews and women.
John Dunn


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